|Figure 1. 27HC promotes MCF-7 cell and Ishikawa cell proliferation, and in vivo 27HC stimulates MCF-7 cell xenograft growth and a uterotrophic response. A–D. Cell proliferation was evaluated by quantifying BrdU (A) or 3H-thymidine incorporation (B–D), n= 4–8. A. Growth responses of MCF-7 cells to E2 (10−8M) or 27HC treatment (10−8 to 10−6M) for 24h were compared. B. The dose-response of MCF-7 cells to 27HC (10−9 to 10−6M, for 24h) was determined. C. The requirement for ERα in the growth response of MCF-7 cells to E2 (10−8M) or 27HC (10−6M) was evaluated in cells treated with methyl-piperidino-pyrazole (MPP, 10uM) for 24h. D.|
So with this information it would be wise to see the potential impacts of 27HC on ER+ breast cancer. Since 27HC is a cholesterol metabolite transported in the same lipoprotein particles as cholesterol, there was a predictable positive association between serum 27HC and cholesterol in both controls and cancer patients. We can see that this was eventually proven to be true in Figure 2C and 2D. In addition, compared with controls, there was a 3 fold greater 27HC concentration in normal breast tissue from cancer patients than controls. 27HC levels were 2.3 fold higher in the breast tumor itself than in the breast tissue.
|27HC content is increased in normal breast tissue and tumors from ER+ breast cancer patients, and it is locally modulated. A,B. Serum 27HC (A) and total cholesterol concentration (B) in control and breast cancer patients (n= 17 and 58, respectively). Values for 10 cancer patients with serum 27HC greater than 2SD above the mean value for controls are shown in red. C,D. Relationship of serum 27HC to serum cholesterol concentration in controls (C, n=17) and cancer patients (D, n=58). E. 27HC content in normal breast tissue from controls (n=17) and cancer patients (n=48), and in tumors (n=32). *p<0.05 vs control, †p<0.05 vs cancer patient normal breast. F,G. Relationship of normal breast 27HC content to serum 27HC in controls (F, n=17) and cancer patients (G, n=40). H,I. Relationship of tumor 27HC content to serum 27HC (H) or normal breast 27HC content (I) in cancer patients (n=27).|
|Table 1. Overexpression of CYP27A1 increases the likelihood of a higher tumor grade. Results of immunohistochemical analysis of CYP27A1 expression in human breast cancer tissue microarrays are shown. CYP27A1 expression was determined to be low or high and correlated with tumor grade. A Fisher’s exact test was used to determine P values for the likelihood of association. Ordinal logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio. N, sample number; N/A, not applicable (because sample number is too small).|
|Genetic or pharmacological inhibition of 27HC production attenuates hypercholesterolemia- promoted tumor growth in mice. The latency and growth of tumors in the MMTV-PyMT mouse model of breast cancer were evaluated in mice in which the conversion of cholesterol into 27HC was inhibited by disruption of the CYP27A1 gene (CYP27A1−/−). For this study, MMTV-PyMT mice were bred onto a CYP27A1+/+ or a CYP27A1−/− background. (A) Tumor latency and (B) tumor growth were measured in mice on a control diet (CD) or a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) from weaning. Note that in the tumor growth studies, daily injection of 27HC overcame the inhibitory effect of CYP27A1 deletion. Significance between curves is indicated by a connecting black line and an asterisk (P < 0.05, n = 9 to 25).|
In addition, the d at a hints that cholesterol metabolite 27HC stimulates MCF-7 cell growth in mice and lastly, in ER+ breast cancer patients, 27HC content in normal breast tissue is increased compared to cancer-free controls, and tumor 27HC abundance is further increased.